VirtualApprentice2070
Production Practices
You will complete TWO topics on this inquiry page. Scroll down to find the learning resources you will use. Keep track of the Need to Do tasks for these topics in your Livestock1 2040 Learning checklist.
What requirements guide livestock growing & finishing practices?

Livestock require regular and consistent observation, monitoring and care. Livestock producers should be familiar with basic physical requirements and safe practices that protect livestock health and ways that natural behaviours affect handling. In this inquiry, you identify basic physical needs, including feed, water, space, light, air and temperature. You describe appropriate care of livestock with diseases or ailments. You also demonstrate your understanding of safe handling, restraint and transportation strategies.

Know physical requirements for care
Responsible livestock production involves a solid understanding of health and welfare needs as well as the skills you require to meet those needs. Why is it important to understand and monitor livestock’s overall health on a daily basis?

Need To Know
need to know Find out about the nutritional requirements of livestock in this Need to
Know card.   Beef cattle requirements for feed & water   |   Sheep requirements for feed & water
need to do Consider how nutritional requirements should be adjusted for changing weather conditions, growth, maintenance and reproduction.
How to adjust beef cattle feed requirements   |  How to adjust sheep feed requirements
need to do Explore basic requirements for adequate light, air and ventilation.
Beef cattle requirements for light, air & ventilation  |   Sheep requirements for light, air & ventilation
need to know Find out about minimum space requirements for living spaces.
Space requirements for beef cattle   |   Space requirements for sheep
need to know Watch this video to find out how to ensure feed requirements are met.
About feed requirements
Need To Do
Introduction Describe requirements and best practices for meeting your animal’s basic physical needs and making adjustments for different conditions.
Identify basic physical needs
Introduction Demonstrate your ability to provide for at least two basic physical requirements of an animal.
Meet physical requirements
Introduction Use these graphic organizers to help you complete the learning tasks.
Frame  |   Triple T-Chart  |   Storyboard  |   Index Cards
Introduction When you are finished the learning tasks, respond to the reflection question.
Reflect Two
weblinks These weblinks will help you complete the learning tasks.

Review terms related to nutrition in Know Your Feed Terms. www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex4521?opendocument

Get more information in Water Requirements for Livestock. www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex801/$file/400_716-1.pdf?OpenElement

Find out more about nutritional and feed decisions for bulls and yearlings in Bull Nutrition – Achieving Yearling Breeding. www.thecattlesite.com/articles/3508/bull-nutrition-achieving-yearling-breeding

Check this quick reference guide to body condition scoring for cattle from Ontario Farm Animal Care.
www.farmfoodcare.org/pdfs/animal-resources/body-condition-score.pdf

Consider environmental impact on feeding requirements and adjusting feed rations in Winter Feeding Programs for Beef Cows and Calves. www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex8908/$file/420_52-3.pdf?OpenElement

Get more information and access detailed charts with specific daily feed rations and adjustments in Beef Cows and Winter Feeding Guidelines. www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=511803a1-30a5-4c4a-9bdd-3bc5b1e5fd77

Find some insights on management of beef cattle in Winter Management of the Beef Cow Herd. www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/ansci/beef/as1564.pdf

Find detailed information on nutrient requirements for maintenance, breeding, gestation, lactation, ewe lambs and feeding lambs in Flock Nutritional Requirements. www.sheep101.info/201/nutritionreq.html

Get detailed and specific information on nutrition in Sheep and Goat Management in Alberta: Nutrition.
www.ablamb.ca/documents/management-modules/sgma
/sgma_nutrition_module.pdf


Find more information on Nutrition from the Canadian Sheep Federation Virtual Tool Box. www.cansheep.ca/User/Docs/VTBox/Nutrition%20Section%205.pdf

Find information on sheep nutrient deficiencies in Sheep 101. www.sheep101.info/201/diseasesa-z.html

Explore the information in the article, Ventilation Basics for Beef Cattle, found in the OMAFRA Virtual Beef magazine. www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/beef/news/vbn1110.pdf

Find information in Beef Cattle Housing and Feedlot Facilities. www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/beef_cattle_housing

Consider the information about space in Housing Requirements for Backgrounding Beef Cattle. www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/beef/facts/info_housreq.htm

Find an overview of beef cattle management and production in Guide to Raising Healthy Beef. http://kewaunee.uwex.edu/files/2010/05/GuidetoRaisingHealthyBeef.pdf

For more information on natural and mechanical ventilation systems for sheep barns, read Ventilation Systems for Sheep Barns www.cansheep.ca/user/docs/pdf/ventilation_systems-jbpetersen.pdf

Find more information on Housing from the Canadian Sheep Federation Virtual Tool Box. www.cansheep.ca/User/Docs/VTBox/Housing%20Section%202.pdf

Get more information on space requirements in Feeding Systems for Sheep. www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/sheep/facts/03-013.htm
Know safe practices for livestock health
Responsible animal welfare and care practices protect the health and safety of livestock and their handlers. Owners, producers and caregivers should observe and listen to their animals. How does knowledge of an animal’s natural behaviours contribute to safe handling and prevention of ailments and disease?

Need To Know
need to know Explore best practices and facilities for humane and safe handling and restraint of livestock.
How to handle & restrain beef cattle   |  How to handle & restrain sheep
need to do Consider how safe handling and restraint practices apply to transport.
How to handle beef cattle during transport   |  How to handle sheep during transport
need to do Find out about your responsibility for identification and care of common livestock pests, ailments and disease.
How to deal with pests, ailments & disease in beef cattle  |   How to deal with pests, ailments & disease in sheep
need to know Understand some basic practices for injections, and spaying and dusting livestock.
How to administer basic treatments
need to know Watch this video to learn about some common pests and diseases and how to treat them.
How to treat pests, disease & ailments
Need To Do
Introduction Create a pocket guide to signs and symptoms as well as treatment and prevention strategies for two different wounds or illnesses.
Assess pests, disease & ailments
Introduction Demonstrate your ability to administer one basic treatment for a pest, ailment or disease.
Demonstrate treatment practices
Introduction Demonstrate handling, restraint and/or transport skills.
Demonstrate handling & restraint practices
Introduction Use these graphic organizers to help you complete the learning tasks.
Fishbone Chart  |   Storyboard
Introduction When you are finished the learning tasks, respond to the reflection question.
Reflect Three
weblinks These weblinks will help you complete the learning tasks.

Find a number of articles from Temple Grandin on livestock handling and restraint. www.grandin.com

Read more about handling and restraint in Behavioural Principles of Livestock Handling. www.grandin.com/references/new.corral.html

Use the quick reference card on beef cattle, found in Handling Cattle – Work Smarter, Not Harder.
www.farmfoodcare.org/pdfs/animal-resources/Cattle-Handling-Youth-2.pdf

Find more detailed explanations of Temple Grandin’s principles of restraint in Restraint of Livestock. www.grandin.com/references/abdlps.html

Find information on facilities used to handle cattle in Beef Cattle Handling Facilities General Information. www.agf.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/Leaflets/Beef/315-00.pdf

Get a good overview of facilities and equipment in Beef Cattle Handling. www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/default.aspx?dn=fd3df715-2548-4067-a0d9-895fb70d03a5

Go to Cattle Care: Handling and Facilities to get more information on handling. www.apsc.vt.edu/extension/beef/programs/vabeef-quality-assurance/12_bqa_manual/chapter_6.pdf

Use Temple Grandin’s practices for animal handling in Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines and Audit Guide for Cattle, Pigs and Sheep. www.grandin.com/RecAnimalHandlingGuidelines.html

Find more information and examples in Planning Your Sheep Handling Facility. www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/sheep/facts/02-057.htm

Get more information about handling and restraint in Handling sheep and lambs on the Sheep 201 website. www.sheep101.info/201/handling.html

Find detailed descriptions in Recognizing and Managing Common Health Problems of Beef Cattle. http://animalscience.tamu.edu/files/2012/04/beef-common-health-problems-beef-cattle.pdf

Find more information and a video about lameness in beef cattle. www.beefresearch.ca/research-topic.cfm/lameness-64

Find information and fact sheets on bovine respiratory disease. www.beefresearch.ca/research-topic.cfm/bovine-respiratory-disease-38

Read more in Beef Cattle Nutritional Disorders. http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2519.pdf

Find more information on acidosis in Beef Cattle Handbook: Acidosis. www.iowabeefcenter.org/Beef%20Cattle%20Handbook/Acidosis.pdf

Research a number of different diseases in the online Cattle Disease Guide. www.thecattlesite.com/diseaseinfo/

Find lists of sheep diseases and ailments, with notes on remedies and prevention strategies, in Flock Health Guide for BC Sheep Producers. www.agf.gov.bc.ca/sheep/publications/documents/sheep_flock_health_guide.pdf

Check the Guide to Footrot in Sheep. www.farmfoodcare.org/pdfs/animal-resources/sheep-foot-rot-june-2010.pdf

Find out more about injections in Giving Medication to Animals by Injection. www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/vet/facts/07-031.htm

Get more information on dusting in Insecticide Dust Bags for Cattle Insect Control. www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef515.asp

Find out how to give a sheep an injection in Flock Health from the Canadian Sheep Federation Virtual Tool Box. www.cansheep.ca/User/Docs/VTBox/Flock%20Health%20Section%204.pdf